How to Create Spinners

Whether it’s on a game show or you just want to see the wind blow this in a satisfying circle, spinners are cool. They are probably based on a wheel and axle that is loose. Even the scrolling thing on your mouse is a spinner. Check it out:

First, take a cylinder. It can be long, skinny, short, stubby, or anything. Just make sure the wheel can fit in the cylinder. Take the wheel and put it on the cylinder. If the wheel cannot spin, get a smaller cylinder. If the wheel is sagging from the bottom, get a bigger cylinder or a smaller wheel. Next, make sure you can secure the wheel from falling off the cylinder. It just needs to not let the wheel off of the cylinder. If it is too tight, the wheel won’t spin.

Next is where the creativity really begins. If you want to make a game show spinner, you’ll have to add a wedge-shaped triangle and secure it right above the wheel so the triangle is above the wheel but the vertex is where the circle is. Make sure it is loose so the triangle doesn’t make the spinner impossible to spin. Next, put small, medium length cylinders around the wheel. That should create the spinner.

From mouses to windmills, spinners are in everyday life and are pretty cool. Using the wheel and axle and levers, you can build a spinner too. Just make sure your spinner doesn’t spin too fast. It might hypnotize you. (Just sayin.)

How to Create Spinners

Memories: A Poem

As those bubbles fly away,

Like the birds in autumn.

You’ll wish for them to stay

When time passes by


Some bubbles stay still,

move without action.

Until the wind does its feel

That bubble pops.

Feeling ill.


You’ll never forget,

those bubbles.

They may have popped but,

it will come back

Very wet.

Bubbles of those

Who chose,

to fly away.

Will come back in a day

Before death comes,

fly away.


Memories: A Poem

Air Bubbles

Have you ever noticed bubbles or balloons float in the sky? Or maybe that air bubble in your ice cube? All of these things have to do with one thing: the properties of different gases.

If you’ve ever been outside with bubbles, you know that they float around pretty easily. Why? Because the bubble is filled with CO2, or carbon dioxide, a light-enough material to be blown around by the wind. Same goes with helium balloons. Like some things float in water while other things sink, in the air, balloons float and we sink. Likewise, since the helium is “trapped” in the balloon and is lighter than air, it floats up due to the higher buoyant force pushing it up. Actually, that is how things in water can also sink and float.

But why do ice cubes have air bubbles? The amazing thing is that some don’t, and some do. The reason is because of the speed of the freeze. If the freeze is slow, there is not much chance of air bubbles because the air is all above the liquid. But if the freeze is fast, there is a higher chance of air bubbles because they water might “trap” some air and therefore, creating an air bubble inside the ice cube.

In liquids air bubbles are created by carbon dioxide being lighter and hotter than the liquid itself, so the bubble floats to the top of the liquid and a bubble forms with carbon dioxide.

The amazing property of different kinds of gases make up some of the many great spectacles of science. Air bubbles are one of these some. Remember to look for different marvels in real life. Remember to be mystified!

Air Bubbles

Surface Tension

The magical thing about the elements are that they are the building blocks to everything in the universe. There is a cool property for liquids called surface tension. Sometimes liquids stick to things and won’t move unless something else happens to it. How does it work?

Before we talk about this, you must know that atoms can have a different charge. A hydrogen atom may have a positive charge because it may have one more electron. An oxygen atom might have a negative charge because it may have one more proton. This creates static electricity, when a positively charged atom is attracted to a negatively charged atom, making you “shocked.” Using this, we can explain surface tension.

Sometimes when you pour water out of a cup, sometimes the water sticks to the cup, right? This is caused because of the shape of the water molecule, like a Mickey Mouse shaped way. The oxygen atom is the face, and the hydrogen atoms are the ears. However, the oxygen atom is positively charged, and the hydrogen atom is negatively charged (I think). This means that the water will be stuck to the cup because the negatively charged hydrogen atoms will stick to a positively charged atom on the cup, whether it be plastic or ceramic. Surface tension exists because negatively charged atoms are attracted to positively charged atoms.

Now we know why water sticks to a cup if you pour it out. Surface tension is a magnificent effect of the consequences of an imbalance in electrons and protons. Physics and chemistry are amazing subjects and help us discover the mysteries of the world around us.

Surface Tension

Why Do Instruments Make Different Sounds?

If you’ve ever heard a grand piano play, you know how it sounds. It sounds like the stairways to heaven in a bottle. Or maybe you’ve heard the trumpet before, or the flute. They can all play the same note but sound different in tone. Why is that?

Sound is kind of like a ripple in the pool. As the sound travels further the weaker it gets. However, the sound can be adjusted into, say a flute to make a heavenly high tone. But why is the flute so high and a tuba so low? Well, how do you adjust your pitch when you whistle? You make your mouth hole smaller to get higher notes, and bigger for lower notes. The flute is high because the sound is coming out from a smaller tube, then, say, a trombone.

This is also why some instruments have longer ranges of notes. The clarinet can play notes lower than a trumpet, and can play higher than the trumpet, too. The reason why the clarinet can go so high is because there is an “octave key,” that if you press this key with the right combinations, you can get higher notes, because the sound goes through the small hole that was opened by the “octave key.” I know this because I play the clarinet myself. It all depends on how the instruments are usually made.

So back to the original question: why do different instruments make different sounds?  They make different sounds because they are made of different materials. The clarinet and oboe are similar because they are both made of wood. The brass section usually make similar sounds because they are made of the same materials. This explains why the trumpets are louder than the clarinets because sound reflects off of metal than wood and plastic.

There are many instruments in the world of music. They make different tones and sounds because of their sound bouncing off of the material. It is truly unbelievable how people made these instruments a while back by now.

Why Do Instruments Make Different Sounds?

Supply and Demand

Why do businesses hold sales on clearance items? Why are some popular video games so expensive? Do outside forces affect the cost of a single item? The topic of supply and demand answers these questions. How does supply and demand work?

Supply and demand are one of the main factors to what price a good or service should be. Supply and demand are like a coordinate plane: If one axis changes, so does the other (usually). If there is so much demand for a product and not much supply of the product, then obviously the price is going to be expensive. This can be flipped, too. If there is a huge demand for a lot of supply, then you could put it at a reasonable price for an average of other items like your product. Really, any news for a retail business could completely change their prices. If you have a scandal, people won’t go to your store, so the business would most likely decrease their prices to encourage customers to come to the store.

So why are things priced the way they are? Clearance items may be on sale because no one really wants this item, so the business tries to make it more attractive by lowering its price. Items on sale that are not old are most likely on sale to increase its demand, so therefore after reaching so many people, the sale will not exist anymore to increase profit. Regular items with no sale are most likely placed there because they have a regular amount of demand and a regular amount of supply.

Supply and demand is a really big reason why some businesses are excelling and others are not. If you are running a business, try to avoid doing bad things to avoid forced price drops. Your good deeds may help you someday!

Supply and Demand

Probabilities With Area

Ever wondered what the chances were to hit the bullseye in darts? Or in archery? Or are you just trying to find out if that guy with the prize board is trying to scam you?Whether or not, you can find the probability of those things with area.

The easiest way to find out the chances that you will throw something in an area is to just make a fraction: the area hitting it on over the total area of the board. Which means if the dartboard has a radius of 30 cm in total and the bullseye is just 1 cm wide, the chance is π/900π, or 1/900. We could use this to calculate different areas too.

Let’s say we have a fidget spinner. It’s kind of circular shaped when you spin it, right? So what if your friend told you to try and grab one of the ends of a three-edged fidget spinner while it is spinning? This may seem like a hard problem, but we just need to calculate the area of the ends and the whole area that could be grabbed. Let’s say that each end of the fidget spinner is 30 degrees of the circle each. This means that each of the empty space is 90 degrees of the rotating circle. So let’s say the fidget spinner’s radius is 6 cm. That means the fidget spinner can cover 36πcm^2 of space. But to be accurate, we need to remove the area of the circle in the middle because we cannot grab that. Let’s say that it has a radius of 2cm. We must subtract 4πcm^2 of space out of 36πcm^2. That is about 32π. Since the fidget spinner’s ends are each 30 degrees and there are three ends, multiply 90/360 by 32π. That is 8πcm^2. Divide, and the chances of you grabbing this fidget spinner is about 1/4.

Probabilities are important and help people make good decisions, whether on bets, or stock investments. It is important that we teach these things correctly so we don’t make mistakes that we will later regret.

Probabilities With Area